Romaine, like other lettuces, may also be cooked. The most recent illness started on December 12, 2017; the PHA declared the outbreak over on January 10, 2018, and the CDC declared it over on January 25. De Morges Braun is from Switzerland with leaves that are apple green in the center and bronze to pink on the outside. Some different types of this lettuce are: Brown Golding, Chaos Mix II black, Chaos Mix II white, Devils Tongue, Dark Green Romaine, De Morges Braun, Hyper Red Rumple, Little Leprechaun, Mixed Chaos black, Mixed Chaos white, Nova F3, Nova F4 black, Nova F4 white, Paris Island Cos, Valmaine, and Winter Density, all of which mature within around 70 days. In November 2018, the US CDC and the PHA of Canada issued a warning to consumers that romaine lettuce should not be consumed in any form, and that they should dispose of any currently on hand. Grocery stores sell all varieties as simply romaine lettuce. Little Gem is very small and heat tolerant. , As with other dark leafy greens, the antioxidants found in romaine lettuce are believed to help prevent cancer.  Other authorities trace cos to the Arabic word for lettuce, khus خس [xus]. This type of lettuce dates back further the other three and is still one of the most popular lettuces in the UK. Rouge d'Hiver has dark-red leaves and was cultivated in France at least since 1885. ; February 2011. Although it does contain small amounts of various nutrients, it contains very small amounts of them. Hence the name "romain", the common term in North America. Far from the shrink-wrapped iceberg lettuce we all know so wellperfectly round and crunchy, almost all water, and able to last a long time after harvestthe multitude of lettuce varieties available at the grocery store and farmers markets offer a wide range of textures, colors, and flavors. Its leaves are bright to dark green, with red tinges in the red romaine varieties. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! In the UK it is commonly called Cos lettuce although in France and the USA it is called Romaine - there is no difference between the two other than the different names. Butterhead lettuce has a loose arrangement of leaves, known for its sweet flavor and tender texture. Unlike iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce is free of lactucarium (a compound that, to rabbits, is quite toxic). It gets a bad reputation in the nutrition industry for not being as nutritious as, say, romaine. However, there are countless types of lettuce that we can use and each one varies not only in taste, texture and appearance, but also in the nutrients it provides and the benefits it has. Romaine lettuce is another lettuce type commonly sold in grocery stores. Some varieties develop a closed head, others are more open. Romaine lettuce does best when provided higher fertility than loose-leaf types require. Unlike most lettuces, it is tolerant of heat. The leaves can be green or deep red at the edges and may be ruffled or smooth. ; February 2009, "Science News"; New Romaine Lettuce Lines Launched...; Ivan Simko et. A 2000 to 2001 study by the University of Arizona Extension Program tested 10 romaine varieties for desirable characteristics. Romaine is grown both commercially and in backyard gardens across the state. Lettuce varieties grow well together and have similar watering and nutrient requirements. It has a slightly sweeter, bolder flavor than crisphead, which adds a mild burst to salads and sandwiches. Romaine lettuce, also known as Cos lettuce, has long, broad, upright leaves that hold themselves bunched together as they mature. The four common types of lettuce based on the shape, texture, and uses include Crisphead, Butterhead, Romaine, and Loose-Leaf Lettuce. , From November 2017 through January 2018, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHA) identified romaine as being linked to illness in 41 persons in Canada. The main … Romaine. In addition to these four main lettuce types, a fifth variety of lettuce, called asparagus lettuce or celtuce, is grown for its thick stems that are commonly used in Chinese cuisines.  As of January 9, 2019, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has declared the most recent Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to California grown romaine lettuce over. Americans termed the long-leaf lettuce “Romaine” which is also known as “cos” or “cos lettuce”. It's a great option for your backyard garden, because it grows quickly and is easy to harvest.  On May 22, 2018, after a month-long warning, the CDC announced it was now safe to consume romaine again. Romaine Lettuce, also known as “cos” lettuce in England, has been eaten for almost 5,000 years. Red leaf has a burgundy tint and mild flavor, similar to that of green leaf, while oak leaf is spicier and nuttier. For 3000 years (from at least 2700 BC), lettuce was associated with the ancient Egyptian god of fertility, Min, for its resemblance to the phallus. With just two cups of iceberg lettuce you can consume more than 10% of your daily Vitamin B. Of course, in the U.S., the name we give, Romaine, refers to the time when it was grown extensively in the Roman Empire. , In British English, it is commonly known as "cos" lettuce, and in North American English as "romaine" lettuce. A healthier kind of lettuce… Their crispness level is between Romaine and Butterhead. Petite Rouge is a baby red romaine lettuce with red-tinged green leaves. Heirloom varieties are romaine lettuce types that have been grown or developed in various parts of the world with the seed saved and passed on from generation to generation. Leaf lettuce is a favorite among gardeners because it's easy to grow. There is also butterhead lettuce called this because of its flower-like appearance and buttery flavor. They consist of large, loosely packed leaves joined at a stem. Romaine lettuce is most frequently used in Caesar salads and other salads. It symbolises the bitterness inflicted by the Egyptians while the Israelites were slaves in Egypt. al. For home gardeners, loose leaf lettuce has an advantage over other types: If you pick leaves individually instead of pulling the whole head from the ground, the leaves will continue to replace themselves throughout the season. Tanimura & Antle romaine lettuce heads with a "packed on" date of October 15 and October 16 are all part of the announcement. The same strain of E. coli identified in the 2017-2018 outbreak was implicated. Romaine or cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Parris Island Cos is named after the island of the same name and is one of the most common green varieties. In North America, romaine is sold as whole heads or as “hearts” that have had the outer leaves removed and are often packaged together. Butterhead – Also known as Boston or Bibb lettuce and traditional in the UK as “round lettuce”. RADIO.COM. A hardy annual, some varieties of lettuce can be overwintered even in relatively cold climates under a layer of straw, and older, heirloom varieties are often grown in cold frames. longifolia) is a variety of lettuce that grows in a tall head of sturdy dark green leaves with firm ribs down their centers. Romaine lettuce is crisp and juicy, with a sweetness unmatched by other lettuce types. It's also known as the main ingredient in Caesar salad.  A probably related outbreak affected 25 people in 15 states of the U.S. who ate leafy greens, but the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) were unable to confirm that it was romaine in particular. Cattle can harbor the bacteria without ill effects, and be asymptomatic carriers of the bacterium. , The day of 22 Germinal in the French Republican Calendar was dedicated to romaine lettuce, as "Romaine".. Heirloom varieties are romaine lettuce types that have been grown or developed in various parts of the world with the seed saved and passed on from generation to generation. They have a mild and delicate flavor. Laboratory testing last week detected E.coli in … Although romaine varieties are well known for the hearts at the center of the heads, the outer leaves can also be used in salads, as a tortilla substitute for wraps, and are delicious grilled. Parris Island Cos is named after the island of the same name and is one of the most common green varieties. There was one death. Commercially sold romaine lettuce has occasionally been the subject of product warnings by both U.S. and Canadian health authorities warning that consumer supplies can become contaminated with or host pathogenic E. coli bacteria. Yes, there is more than one member of this family of oblong lettuce heads. It grows in cool weather, but some varieties are heat tolerant. For example, it can be braised or made into soup. Romaine lettuce has been linked to more outbreaks of a potentially deadly bacteria than any other leafy green in North America, according to a study. Cimarron has been cultivated since the 18th century. The study showed no significant difference in head size or weight among HMMX 7555 (Harris Moran), Conquistador, PAG 302, PIC MI, Big Heart, PIC 454, PSR 0566, Green Tower, Heritage and Grand Prize. Gardeners around the world love growing the almost countless varieties and types of lettuce. Romaine has crisp, sturdy leaves that are used in Caesar salads. Don't look for a \"head\" on them because the leaves branch from a single stalk. Barcarole, Jericho, Verte Mar, Claremont, Little Caesar, Cosmo-Savoy Leaf and Freckles … A dieter’s dream, romaine lettuce has about 8 calories and 1 to 2 grams of carbohydrates per cup.. Thin them as the lettuce grows. Forellenschluss is an Austrian variety, whose name is German for speckled like a trout. , Romaine lettuce may be used in the Passover Seder ritual feast as a type of bitter herb. Many US growers of romaine lettuce farm in Salinas in the summer and the Imperial Valley and Yuma in the winter, relying on day laborers crossing the border from Mexico. There are three types of leaf lettuce: red, green, and oak.  Many dictionaries trace the word cos to the name of the Greek island of Cos, from which the lettuce was presumably introduced. Red romaines are primarily red, green with tinges of red or speckled. Dole recalls 2 types of romaine lettuce hearts due to E.coli concerns Photo credit Getty Images . I can’t imagine Korean BBQ without lettuce. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. , It apparently reached Western Europe via Rome, as it is called lattuga romana in Italian and laitue romaine in French, both meaning “Roman lettuce”.  At least 43 people became ill in this outbreak, which the FDA traced to one of six counties in Central California: Monterey, San Benito, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz and Ventura. Romaine lettuce varieties are green, red or speckled. When making a salad, shy away from using primarily iceberg lettuce, and mix together a small amount of iceberg with romaine and other lettuces to get more nutritional benefits out of your salad. Romaine or cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa) forms elongated heads. Heirloom varieties are romaine lettuce types that have been grown or developed in various parts of the world with the seed saved and passed on from generation to generation. It is a key ingredient of the famous dish Caesar Salad. , "Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing, United States Centers for Disease Control, "Outbreak of, Public Health Agency of Canada, "Public Health Notice - Outbreak of, "AICR's Foods That Fight Cancer: Dark Green Leafy Vegetables", "E. coli outbreak warning expands to all types of romaine lettuce", "Our national romaine lettuce crisis is over, says the CDC.  Much of the romaine lettuce sold in northern Europe is grown in southern Spain, relying on migrant laborers from Africa. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service in Salinas, California, released two romaine varieties -- SM09A and SM09B -- in February 2011 that are resistant to dieback disease and have a good shelf life. This is thanks to its crisp texture and superior richness of flavor. Interesting Fact: Lettuce is actually part of the daisy family! Do you want to know what type of lettuce they are and what properties they have? Iceberg lettuce is typically defined by its mild flavor and crisp texture. Eat the plants you pull as baby lettuce. Romaine lettuce is quite popular! With its broad leaves and crunchy center, romaine lettuce is often used as a wrap, or can even be grilled to spruce up a summertime Caesar salad. , In response to another E. coli O157:H7 outbreak, which probably began in mid-March 2018, the CDC recommended in April 2018 that consumers not buy or eat romaine lettuce unless they could confirm it was not from the Yuma, Arizona, growing region. Rouge d'Hiver has dark-red leaves and was cultivated in France at least since 1885. Do not feed a rabbit iceberg lettuce as it contains excessive amounts of lactucarium, which is toxic for rabbits in high doses. If you’re scratching your head at what they could be, you’re not alone. Lettuce varieties grow well together and have similar watering and nutrient requirements. Lettuce does best when highs do not reach more than 60 degrees. Lettuce prefers cool weather and withstands temperatures down to freezing. Little Gem is very small and heat tolerant. But that doesn’t mean iceberg is without its benefits. The disease agent was Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. , For 3000 years (from at least 2700 BC), lettuce was associated with the ancient Egyptian god of fertility, Min, for its resemblance to the phallus. Romaine comes from the word Roman while Cos is derived from the Greek island of Kos. Heading varieties of lettuces are commonly started in flats, then transplantedto individual spots, usually 20 to 36 cm (7.9 to 14.2 in) apart, in the garden after developing several leaves. Romaine / Cos – Used mainly for salads and sandwiches, this type forms long, upright heads. Iceberg lettuce is infamous for being the least nutritious of the various types of lettuce. In North American supermarkets, romaine is widely available year-round. This is also a good choice in types of lettuce for burgers as it is heat-tolerant so you are good using it … The result? Instead of a generic looking and tasting salad, you can make something interesting to eat and look at. For this reason, leaf lettuce is generally more perishable than head varieties. By Lizzy Buczak. This type of lettuce does not form heads. Nov. 9, 2020 – Twelve people have been sickened and five hospitalized from an E.coli outbreak possibly tied to romaine lettuce. It is relatively tolerant of hot weather and can be grown for either baby leaf or full-size heads. The majority of product produced and consumed in the U.S. is currently from California and Arizona. Romaine is a common salad green, and is the usual lettuce used in Caesar salad. And investigators are stumped", "FDA Investigating Multistate Outbreak of, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/romaine-lettuce-is-not-safe-to-eat-cdc-warns-us-consumers/2018/11/20/726d0ae6-ece9-11e8-96d4-0d23f2aaad09_story.html, "Spain's salad growers are modern-day slaves, say charities", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Romaine_lettuce&oldid=987427815, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 23:57. Lettuce spaced farther apart receives more sunlight… Romaine lettuce is commonly used in Middle Eastern cuisine. Plant the seeds ½ inch deep and 1 inch apart. More than 95 percent of romaine lettuce commercially grown in the U.S. grows in Arizona and California. Summer Crisp/Batavia : As the name implies, summer crisp is the ideal choice for summer lettuce. Others include the Luscious Gem, a small, ultra-sweet romaine-type that lives up to its name, and Garnet Rose, a vibrant red heirloom. Sow romaine lettuce seeds directly or start seeds in pots and transplant the seedlings to your garden. Sow romaine lettuce seeds directly or start seeds in pots and transplant the seedlings to your garden. She teaches aikido, is an experienced back-country skier and backpacker and is active in her community. Romaine grows in a tall head with long, narrow, thick leaves growing tightly together. There are also several cultivars of lettuce produced by mixing these popular lettuce types, … In England, romaine is called “cos” lettuce named after the Greek islands from which the lettuce was originally distributed. Different types of lettuce are used most often for salads but they show up in recipes for everything from soups and sandwiches and wraps. 3 Boston Lettuce bhofack2 November 24, 2020 … A graduate of the University of Calgary, Jensen writes about gardening, home projects, social sciences and sports and recreation.  The outbreak killed five people and caused 89 hospitalizations across 32 states. Red Romaine and Cimmaron have primarily red leaves, especially when grown in cool weather. Lisa Jensen grows organic food and lives in an adobe house that she built. A prime example of a crisphead is iceberg lettuce: its round head is made up of tightly packed, crunchy leaves. Butterhead lettuce is fine, but it’s high in acids. Lettuces meant for the cutting of individual leaves are generally planted straight into the garden in thick rows. Lettuce becomes contaminated with the bacterium as the result of cattle manure being used to fertilize crop fields, or the proximity of cattle pastures and feedlots to water sources used to irrigate crops. anytime in the spring when the soil is dry enough to rake the surface Romaine lettuce: Also called cos, this lettuce has long, deep green leaves that form a loaf-shaped head. After all, as much as you might like romaine, spinach, and kale—not to mention as much as they dominate popular salad bars—there are more than a dozen other types of lettuce to consider for your salad and toppings needs. Plant several varieties in one row for mixed salad ingredients. This tasty green also offers far more vitamins and much more fiber. It originated off the Greek Island of Cos and is considered to be the oldest form of cultivated lettuce.  The thick ribs, especially on the older outer leaves, should have a milky fluid that gives the romaine its typically bitter herb taste. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →, Zedcor Wholly Owned/PhotoObjects.net/Getty Images, University of Arizona Cooperative Extension; Field Evaluation of Romaine Lettuce ...; Mohammed A. Zerkoune, Postharvest Technologyr: Lettuce...; Maria Cantwell, et.al. Romaine lettuce is a good source of vitamins A, K and C, as well as dietary fiber and trace minerals. Barcarole, Jericho, Verte Mar, Claremont, Little Caesar, Cosmo-Savoy Leaf and Freckles are other green romaine varieties that developed by seed companies. Romaine lettuce and lamb’s lettuce are safe for rabbits. It is believed that this type of lettuce was first harvested on the Greek Island of Cos which pretty much explains why it has been named “cos”. To avoid instant wilting, … All Rights Reserved. Romaine is good to use for burgers in the summer as it is a very heat tolerant type of lettuce. In this article we are going to analyze some of the best types of lettuce suitable for a good diet. You'll often see it in \"baby lettuce,\" mesclun, and spring mixes because of its tenderness. Here's how to celebrate", "Five dead, nearly 200 sick in E. coli outbreak from lettuce. The darker the leaves, the healthier it will be. , In June 2018, the FDA traced the source of the latest E. coli outbreak to water from a canal located in Yuma, Arizona..
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